Tuesday, 14 May 2013

Few steps on Papaya cultivation

   Before going to the cultivation aspects of papaya, let us see popularity and demand of papaya in local market.
   In Tripura condition, papaya is used in two forms one, ripened fruit and, two, raw fruit.
Ripened truit although highly preferred and recommended for consumption due to its inherent quality but in terms of demand it's much less compare to raw fruit.
   Raw fruit is in high demand for use in culinary purpose or vegetable purpose.
   Presently , raw papaya in sold in 10 to 12 rupees range in local market.The fact of the matter in one medium sized raw weighs up to 1(one) kilogram.
   But, fact of the  matter is there's hardly any papaya field especially meant for papaya.
Although,many farmers are in the search of alternate profitable cropping option but , this demanding crop seems to least tried by the farmers.
   Another surprising fact,papaya is in fact one of tree which finds it's place in almost all rural household but again, it's in the backyard.Taking this much long time to turrs this backyard to frontyard crop is one of the strangest things to look for .
   Growing or cultivation of papaya is not difficult,it;s more or less same like other fruit crops.
   Let us see the cultivation aspects of papaya:-

Soil conditions
        1.it grows in various types of soil.
        2.soil should be well drained.
        3.Light soils are good for papaya.

Propagation of papaya:-
        1.Papapaya is propogated from seed.
        2.Sowing depends upon the choice of fruiting season.
        3.Seed are usually  sown in February to April month.
        4.Seeds are sown in nursery bed.
        5.Papaya deedlings are raised in poly bag.
        6.Seeds are sown in 1.5 cm deep tin the raised  nursery bed.
        7. Distance between row to row and seed to seed is 10 cm.
        8.Germination time is 3-4 week from sowing.
        9.Seed requirement is 400 to 500 grams seed/ha.
        10.Seedling are protected from rain and sun by erecting thatch.

Transplanting of seedlings to mainfield:-
        1.Seedlings are transplanted when they are two months old with four to five leaves.
        2.June is preferred  month for transplanting to main field.
        3.Pit is not essential but if pit is maintained with 20 kg to FXM,1 Kg of Neem cake and 1 Kg of bonemeal would be helpful.
        4.Seedlings are transplanted with a ball  of earth.
        5.Care should be taken that stem is not covered while transplanting.
        6.In case pit system of transplanting,3 seedlings are planted at 15 cm apart.

Spacing to be maintained:-
         1.Normal spacing is 1.8 x 1.8m
         2.In case of high density planting for different regions and different type of hybrid like dwarf, following spacings are maintained.
         (a) 1.33 x 1.33m
         (b) 1.40 x 1.40m
         (c) 1.40 x 1.60m
         (d) 1.60 x 1.60m and
         (e) 1.20 x 1.20m

Papaya Field management
        1. Weeding of field during initial stage
        2. Frequest and light inter cultural operation in the field
        3. Timely manuring & irrigation
        4. Maintenance of good soil moisture
        5. Controlled irrigation to avoid dampening of soil so is pathogenic growth harmful to papaya
        6. Irrigation at every 10 days interval in winter and every week in summer
        7. Application of N,P and K from 200 to 250 grams per seedling/plant/year
        8. Super phosphate and potash improves yield as well as fruit quality
        9. Enhanced rate of N, P & K to the range of 240 gram N, 500 gram P and 500 grams K Per plant/year is also applied in some improved papaya variety.
      10. Trenches are cut between the rows of papaya plants during rainy season for draining out of excess water

Fruiting of Papaya Plants:-
        1. Papaya plants starts flowering from five to ten months depending upon the region
        2. After onset of flowering, male papaya plants are identified and uprooted from field keeping only 10-15% of male papaya plants in the field
        3. Once fruiting starts, controlled thining of fruits are done wesen fruits are 2 cm long.
           Thining should be done frequently, objective is, fruits do not touch one another when matures and also ensuring proper growth of fruits.

           These are few basic steps in Papaya Cultivation however, actual package of practices of Papaya Cultivation will vary depending upon the soil and agro-climatic condition.

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