Wednesday 19 June 2013

Few steps on Mango Cultivation

a)Mode of Propagations:-
1)through seeds
2)through vegetative means
b)Propagation through seeds:-
1)mango store should be sown within week of extraction of store
2)pulp should be washed out from store at the time of extraction of store
3)seed should be sown in nursery bed
4)nursery should be prepared under shade
5)nursery soil should be sterilized 3-4 weeks from sowing
6)mango store should also treated with fungicide before sowing
7)seed should be sown 5cm deep with germination end pointing upward
8)nursery should be 1-1.5cm wide
9)seed should be sown at 30cm between rows and 15cm between seeds
10)Nursery soil should be loose soil type for easy lifting of seedling with a ball of earth.
11)Seeds germinate in about 3 weeks
c)Methods of grafting :-
1)Inarching or approach grafting
2)Veneer grafting
3)Store / epicotyls grafting
d)Inarching or approach grafting procedure:-
1)nursery raised seedlings are transplanted in pot or poly bag
2)One year old seedlings of lead pencil thickness are selected for approach grafting
3)Potted or poly bag seedlings are placed on a suitable platform near the scion shoot of equal thickness
4)One season old shoot of mother tree are selected as scion
5)25cm above the ground level of the root stock is chosen for graft union
6)5-8cm long slice of bark and wood is removed from root stock
7)This cut removes 1/3 thickness of stem and tapers gently towards top and bottom
8)A corresponding cut is made in scion so that two cuts perfectly fits with out leaving a chick
9)These two cuts are placed face to face and tied with poly there tape
10)Grafting can be done in monsoon January –February –March but there should not be rain on grafting days.
11)Root stock in the pot or poly bag should be watered regularly
12)Stock and scion unite in about 6 weeks
13)Once stock & scion unites, scion shoot below the union is cut
14)After anther two weeks time, shoot of the root stock is cut above the union of stock & scion
15)Now the grafted seedling has roots of seedling stock and top of the mother tree to be propagated
16)Now the grafted seedling is hardened in partial shade for another two months before planting in main field.
17)The whole process starting from seed sowing to grafting and main filed planting may take 1.5-2.0 years
e)Veneer grafting:-      
1)This method differs from inarching or approach grafting
2)In this case, scion is completely detected from mother tree at the time of grafting
3)Scion shoot consists of a healthy 15 to 20cm terminal shoot of previous season’s growth
4)Scion chooser for grafting should be ready 10 days before grafting by cutting leaf blades above petiole.
5)At the time of grafting, bud of the scion should be ready to sprout
6)Veneer grafting can be done from spring to early monsoon.
7)All other grafting process remain scone as approach grafting
f)Store/ epicotyls grafting:-
1)It’s simple quick easy and cheap
2)Two weeks old seedlings are considered for root stock
3)Vigorous and tender stem with coppery leaves are chosen
4)Seeding are uprooted from bed keeping store and roots intact
5)Rooted stock is beheaded retaining 6-8cm long stem
6)Scion shoot should be 4-6 months old healthy with dormant plump terminal bud
7)Length of scion should 10-15cm in length
8)Leaves of scion should be defoliated retaining only petiole
9)Now the longitudinal transverse cut running 4-6cm centrally down the beheaded root stock
10)A wedge shape cut, slanting from both side is made on lower side of scion shoot.
11)Scion is inserted into the saddle like cut on the root stock and pressed properly so that cambium tissue of the root and scion shoot overleaf each other.
12)Union is there tied with 150 gauge polythene    
13)Now the grafted seedling is planted in 250 gauge poly there bag of 15cm x 20cm size which is perforated
Climatic requirement for mango  
a)mango is tropical as well as semi tropical plant
b)It grows up to an altitude of 1200m but fruiting is poor above 600m
c)Two most considerations are a frost tree, dry period at the time of flowering and sufficient heat at the time of ripening of fruit
d)Temperature below 34F to 36F are damaging to mango
e)Ideal temperature is 75F to 80F but can grow up to 40F to110F
f)Frost at flowering is injurious
g)Rain and cloudy weather at flowering damage the flowers
h)It can grow successfully with an annual rainfall of 75 to 190cm
Soils requirement 
a)mango being a plant of tap root system therefore nature of sub-soil is important
b)water table should be 2m to 2.5m
c)sand, clay, very heavy black soil with hard substratum not suitable
d)deep alluvial soil of Indo-Gangetic  plains is ideally suited for mango
e)However following soils are also equally suited:-
1)well drained late rite soil
2)Red soil
3)Medium black soil of  peninsular
4)Deep red loam with a substratum of loose gravel
5)Even rocky, light loamy  soils at foot hills of Himalaya is suited
f)A well drained, deep loamy soil is conducive for mango
g)Alkaline soil is injurious to  young plant
h)Desirable PH is between 5.5 to 7.5
Planting Methods   
a)planting depends on rainfall and irrigation facility based on that planting time is as fixed:-
1)February - March, when irrigation is available.
2)End of monsoon, in heavy rain fall areas
b)pit at 1m x 1m x 1m size should be dug well before the planting
c)sometimes brushwood are burnt in pits before filling of pits this improves the surrounding soil and add potassium in the form of ashes
d)Before filling of pits 20 to 30 kg of well decomposed FYM should be added with 800g bone meal and 1kg wood ashes.
e)Spacing it varies according to orchard type variety and soil fertility condition so is several spacing as following:
f)Planting is done in cool hours immediate after planting seedlings are watered.
Fertilizers Management:-  
a)For one year old plant, 300g urea, 300g single super phosphate and 100g muriate of  potash
b)Fertilizer dose is increased with the age in same multiple till the 10th year of planting
c)Ten year plant will receive 3kg urea, 3kg single super phosphate and 1kg muriate of potash
d)FYM for 10 year old plant is 50 kg
e)Time of fertilizer application is related to :-
I)Production of vegetative flush
II)Fruit bud differentiation
f)For bearing tree, it is advisable to apply full dose quantity of nitrogen/urea along with half quantity of phosphorus and potash just after harvesting of fruit
g)FYM is also appropriate to apply at this time
h)Remaining quantities of single super phosphate and muriate of potash is applied during October with last irrigation.
N:B: These are the few steps on cultivation however, actual package of practices for cultivation of mango may vary place to place based on the soil and climatic condi

Friday 7 June 2013

Few steps on coconut cultivation

a.Coconut is propagated through nuts.
i) Selection of seed nuts is utmost importance
ii) Mother palms of seed nut should have the record of consistently high yields, heavy bearers and free from incidence of disease and pests
iii) Seed nuts are planted in the nursery bed during May-June in trenches of 25-30 cm deep at a spacing of 30 x 30 cm
iv) Seed nuts are covered with soil so that top portion of the husk alone is visible
v) Most preferred seed nut planting is vertical
vi) Coconut seedling can also raised in poly bag of 60 x 40 cm with 500 gauge thickness
vii) One year old, vigorous seedlings with 6-8 leaves with short and broad leaf stalks, snowing signs of early splitting and with 10-12 cm girth at collar region are selected for planting.
Soils requirement
a.It can be grown in different types of soil
i) Lateritic
ii) Coastal sandy
iii) Alluvial
b. PH ranging from 5.0 to 8.0
c. Good drainage system
d. Good water holding capacity
e. Presence of water table within 3m
f. Absence of rock or any hard substratum within 1m surface
Climatic requirement
a. It’s a humid tropical crop
b. Best within 23 degrees equator
c. Altitude of 1000m
d. Temperature of 27 oC with diurnal variation of 5-7 oC, 2000 hours of sunshine / year
e. Well distributed rainfall of 100-300 cm
a. Land preparation depends on
i) Topography of land
ii) Soil type
iii) Environment & ground water level
b. One slop and undulating area
i) Prepare land by contour terracing or bunding
c. In low lying areas
i) Forms mounds to a height of 1m above water level
d. In reclaimed area
i) Planting is done on field bundhs
e. Pit size depends on
i) Soil type
ii) Water table
f. Pit size in loamy soil with low water table
i) 1m x 1m x 1m
g. In lateritic soil with underlying rocks, pit size
i) 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.2m
h. Sandy soil pit size is
i) 75cm x 75cm x 75cm
i. Pit is filled with top soil to a height of 60cm below the ground level
j. In lateritic soil, application of common salt 2kg/pit 6months prior to planting improves the soil condition
k. Seedlings are planted in small hole taken at the centre of the pit
l. Planting time: May however, in low lying areas, September
m. Care should be taken that husk of the seed nut is visible from outside
n. Propping should be given after planting
Spacing to be maintained
   Spacing of coconut depends on following conditions:-
a. Whether crop is monoculture
b. Whether it’s grown in association with other
c. Depth, soil fertility and soil moisture level
d. In poor and rain fed soil closer spacing is followed
   Based on the above criteria’s, following system of planting and spacing is considered:-
i) Triangular system : 7.6m spacing
ii) Square system : 7.6 to 9m spacing
iii) Single hedge system : 5m between rows & 9m between rows
iv) Double hedge system : 5m x 5m in rows & 9m between pairs of rows
e. Single hedge system is most suited for raising intercrops.
Nutrient Management
Manures requirement:-
a) In sandy and coastal soil, apply 10kg organic manure per pit in the first 3(three) years
b) Apply 15 to 25kg organic manure per palm during June-July
Fertilizer application
a. In the irrigated condition 1kg N, 0.50kg P and 2kg K per palm/year
b. In rain fed condition, 0.05N, 0.32 Kg P and 1.20kg K per palm per year
c.In rain fed condition, fertilizers are applied in two split dosage, first split with 1/3 of fertilizer applied in April-June. Second split with 2/3 of fertilizers in the month of September-October
d. In irrigated condition, fertilizers are applied in 3 to 4 split dosage.
e. Fertilizers and manure should be applied in circular basin of 10cm deep at a radius of 2m from the base of palm.
f. Basin is opened after onset of south-west monsoon and after close of north-east monsoon
Water Management
a. Adequate supply of water is essential for unhindered growth of coconut
b. Soil moisture is essential for absorption of nutrients by roots
c. Moisture stress lead to
i) Stunted growth
ii) Drooping of leaves
iii) Immature nut fall
iv) Decrease yield
d. So is requirement for irrigation to get the :
i) Increase yield
ii) Size of nuts
iii) Copra content
e.The following irrigation methods are followed
i) Flood irrigation
ii) Drip irrigation and
iii) Basin irrigation
f. Basin irrigation requires 600 to 1600 litres of water at 3-9 intervals based on soil type
g. Flood irrigation causes huge water loss and nutrient leaching
h. Drip irrigation, water supplied at 4 dripping points at 1m distance from palm at 30cm below soil surface @ 2litre water discharge / hour.
Flowering & Fruiting
a. Flowering commences at 6-12 year of age
b. Nut harvesting starts from 6-7 years after planting
c. Dwarf and hybrid varieties flowers in 4-5 years
d. Coconut palm takes further 5-8 years from first commencing of flowering for stable yield
e. Fruit matures in about 12 months
     These are the few steps in cultivation however actual package of practices may vary place to place

Thursday 30 May 2013

Few steps on cardamom cultivation

Cardamom prorogation
(a) Cardamom can be propagated in following ways
(ii)Rhizome and
(b) Suckers, free from pest and diseases are better suited for clonal multiplication.
(c) Although, large scale prorogation is done through seeds but, it has inherent draw back due to heterogeneous progeny due to cross pollination.
(d) Cardamom can also be propogated through tissue culture techniques.

Let us see the popular method of prorogation i.e. through seeds.
Prorogation through seeds  
(a)Fresh seeds are collected from desired mother plant having good quality attributes.
(b)Cardamom seed possesses hard seed coat which delays the seed germination.
(c)For better germination percentage, seeds are treated with 20% nitric acid for 10 minutes before sowing the seeds to the seed beds.
(d)Nursery beds are selected in gentle slope with perennial water source.
(e)There are 2 (two) stages of nursery
(i)Primary nursery and
(ii)Secondary nursery
(f)After sowing of Cardamom seeds in the primary nursery, seed bed is mulched with paddy straw or Phyllanthus ermblica for better germination.
(g)Transplanting of cardamom seedlings are done at 4-5 leaves stage.
(h)Time of transplanting to secondary nursery bed is as follows
(i)December or January OR
(iii)May- June.
Planting in mainfield 
Field preparation
(a)Ground should be cleared
(b)Thinning out of excess shade tree branches
(c)In sloppy land, ground should be cleared from top to down word spacing to be maintained.
(a)Spacing is based on variety and longevity of crop. There are various spacing followed.
(1)3m x 3m or
(2)2.4m x 2.4m for high rainfall or irrigated
(3)1.8m x 1.8m or
(4)1.2m x 1.8m in Karnataka
(5)2.0m x 2.0m in flat and
(b)Terrace should be made on sloppy hills
(c)Width of terraces should be 1.5 to 1.8m
(d)Top soil of the terrace to the depth of 8-15 cm should be removed and kept aside for filling in pit.
(e)Pits are dug before monsoon
(f)Pit size is 90cm x 90cm x 45cm
(g)1/3 of pit should be filled with top soil
(h)½ of pit with 1:3 mixture of topsoil and organic manure
(i)In low rainfall area, trenches size of 75cm width and 30 can depth and plant spacing 1-1.5m is maintained.
Planting time
(a)When soil is moist
(b)Cloudy days with light drizzling are ideal for planting
(c)Deep planting should be avoided.
(d)Plant should be supported by staking
(e)Base of plant should be mulched with fallen dried leaves of shade tree
(f)Planting during rainy season from June is ideal on steep to moderate slopes
(g)Early planting gets assured and distributed rains in south-west monsoon that helps in good establishment and growth
(h)In low lying area, ideal time of planting is after cessation of rain.
(i)Cardamom is sensitive to drought
(j)Mulching is advisable for conserving soil moisture
(k)Trench method is superior to pit method of planting
Weeding management:-
(a) Cardamom being surface feeder in the first year of planting, frequent weeding is necessary.
(b) Depending upon the weed density, 2-3 rounds of weeding in a year are necessary.
(c) Where manual weeding is not practicable, herbicide in the inter space leaving 60 cm around plant base is also done.
Consists of removing of old and dry shoots of cardamom plants, it facilitates:-
(a) Adequate sunlight
(b) Aeration
(c) Reclining insect infestation
(d) Ensures over all build up and growth
(e) Pollination by bees and formation of green capsule.
(f) Trashing operation may be carried out 2-3 times in a year.
 It is done towards the end of monsoon rains by
(a) Soil digging around the plant
(b) Digging is done in one year old plantation to ensure.
(i) Better root development.
(c) Deep chugging is strictly avoided.
Light earthing up:-
(a) Rice humus top soil around the plant to a distance of 75cm is scrapped and applied thinly/ thin year to the base of clumps.
(b) It forms mulching covering the plant roots and rhizomes.
Shade Regulation
(a) Sufficient shade is maintained to protect the plants from scorching sun.
(b) Too much shades causes over tillering, lanky growth of tillers and consequently poor yield.
(c) Medium to high light intensity (45-60%) is ideal for better growth and yield
(d) To provide adequate light during rainy season, when intensity of light is less, If is necessary to carry out shade regulation before onset of monsoon.
(e) Threes having well distributed branching habit and small leaves are ideal for cardamom.
Nutrient Management
(a) 75:75:150 kg of NPK/ha is recommended to get a yield of 100 kg of dry capsule/ha
(b) Additional fertilizer doses of 0.65 kg N, 0.65 kg P and 1.3 kg K/ha is to be applied for every increase in yield of 2.5 kg of capsules over the normal yield.
(c) Urea is better source of nitrogen fertilizer
(d) Liming corrects soil acidity and enhances rate of nitrification, resulting in better growth.
(e) Spice Board of India recommends
(i) 75:75:150 kg/ha of NPK for rain-fed
(ii) 125:125:250 kg NPK/ha for irrigated
(e) Zinc deficiency is over come through foliar application of 500 or 750 ppm of zinc enhances yield and quality of cardamom.
 Irrigation us required during the
(a) February to April but also
(b) January to May upon rainfall.
(c) Sloppy topography - overhead sprinkler at 35-45 mm water at 15 days interval
(d) In drip system- @4-6 litres /chump/day may be given.
N:B: Actual package of practices may vary in place to place, user is requested to refer specific recommendation

Wednesday 29 May 2013

Few steps on cashew cultivation

Climatic requirement:-
(a)It’s a hardy and drought resistant tropical crop
(b)Cashew requires moist, mild tropical climate
(c)Cashew can’t with stand extremely low temperature (less than 18 degree Celsius) and high temperature (more than 40 degree calcium) for a prolonged period.
(d)It performs generally well up to an altitude of 450 meters and satisfactory up to an altitude of 700 meters.
(e) Less than 60% relative humidity greatly affects the growth and productivity of cashew.
Soil conditions:
(a)Cashew can be grown on a variety of soils.
(b)It’s performance is good in well drained sadly loam and light coastal soil
(c)Heavy clay with poor drainage is not suitable
(d)Cashew is sensitive to water longing and to tolerant to soil moisture stress to a great extent.
Cashew propagation:
(a)Cashew can be propagated in following methods:
(iii)Epicotyls grafting and
(iv)Soft wood grafting
(v)Soft wood grafting is popular and advocated widely.
(vi) Stock is grown in nursery bed
Planting methods:
(a)Pits of 60 x 60 x 60 cm size are dug in the month of May –June
(b)Pits are filled with as follows :-
(i)Top soil
(ii)Compost  5 kg or
(iii)Poultry manure 2 kg and
(iv)Rock phosphate 200 g
©Grafted seedling are planted in the month of July to August
Various spacing methods are followed which are as follows:-
(a)7.5 m x 7.5 m or
(b)8 m x 8 m or
(c)4 m x 4 m
In case of 4 m x 4 m spacing method, thinning is done at later stage thereby maintaining spacing at 8m x 8m at tenth year.
Nutrition management:-
Fertilizer and manures are applied from 4th year of planting in following ways:-
(a)10 to 15 kg of FXM per plant / year
(b)500 g N(1.1 kg Urea,125 g K (208g muriate of potash per plant
(c)Fertilizer are applied in two split doses as
(i)May  to June (pre-monsoon)
(ii)September – October (post monsoon)
Flowering & fruiting:-
(a)Plants start flowering from second year on ward however; it’s prevented by removing the flower panickle
(b)Plants are allowed to flower from third year onward since economic production commences from third year.
© Cashew plant threes gives full production from tenth year and continues for another twenty years.
(d)During flowering & fruiting, following are noticed:-
(i)Heavy rain during flowering lead to poor fruit set.
(ii) High temperature causes fruit drop.

N:B: Actual package of practices may vary region to region, user is advised  to refer specific package of practices of local condition.

Wednesday 15 May 2013

Few steps on Pineapple cultivation

      Decades ago pineapple was one of the prominent fruit crop of Tripura however, over the years it's popularity in terms of total area under cultivation has dwindled.
      There was lots of hope and aspiration around pineapple; even pineapple processing plant had also come into existence but, all these hops and aspiration around pineapple seems to have taken in otherwise these days.
      Reason for present spat of development could be many but as a fruit, it's demand will not diminish.
      Therefore,any one venturing into pineapple cultivation in the present circumstances  will definitely profit from his pineapple orchard.
      Pineapple cultivation in the state is quite traditional as it's evident from it's presence in almost all areas of the state.
     Hence,people's knowledge in pineapple cultivation is quite common and easy,let it be learned or acquired knowledge.
     Let us plunge into cultivation aspects of pineapple.
Mode of propagation:-
   ii.Slip and.
Soil condition:-
   a.adaptable to grow in various types of siol.
   b.ligh soil ensure good quality fruit. addition,sandy loam & laterite soils are also suitable.
   d.soil pH:4.5 to 6.5
Climatic condition:-
   a.Temperature requirement 18 degree centigrade to 24 degree centigrade.
   b.Freezing temperature not suitable.
   c.Decreased temperature increases acidity of fruit.
   d.Requires high rainfoll from 1500 to 2000 mm anrually.
   e.Scorching sun is not desirable however, complete shade is also not suitable.
Planting methods of pineapple:-
   a.Heavy and torrential rain is avoided for pineapple planting.
   b.In Tripura condition,pineapple is planted from the month of August to November.
   c. In Tripura,since,pineapple is cultivated in gentle slope to sloppy hills and hence,irrigation is never considered.
   d.In Tripura,single row and hapaghard system of spacing is followed in most cases which accomodates not more than 25,000 nos. of pineapple suckers/slips/crown per ha.
   e.In high density planting,double row system is followed which can accomodate 63,000 suckers/slips/crown per ha.
   f.In double row system,plant to plant spacing is maintained at 25-30 cms.
   g.Row to row spacing within the bed is maintained at 45-60 cms.
   h.Spacing between 2(two) beds is maintained at 90-105 cms.
   i.White planting,soil around the plant should be tightly pressed.
   j. In case of pineapple cultivation no nursery bed is required.
Fertilizer management:-
    For optimum fruit size and yield manure and fertilizers application is aclvocated.
          However,in Tripura, generally fertilizers are not applies,pineapple comes up with inherent soil fertility.
          In case high density pineapple cultivation,there's bound to be requirement for manure and fertilizers application.
         Below are the recommended level of manure and fertilizers application in pineapple orchard.
        (a) 10 to 20 tonnes of cow dung manure per ha is applied before planting of pineapple plant.
        (b) In case of high density planting fertilizers viz:600 kg of N,400 kg of P and 60 kg of K is recomended.
         (c) Half the quantity of N and full quantities of P & K are applied 3(three) months after planting.
         (d)The remaining quantity of N is applied 10 to 12 months after planting.
Fruiting of pineapple:-
         (a)Flowering generally starts 12 months after planting.
         (b) In Tripura, fruit is marketed right from the month of June and continue to August.
          (c) Sign/indication of flowering can be anticipated once pineapple attains 40 -50 functional leaves.
          (d) maximum flowering occurs form the month of February to April.
          (e) In Tripura,there's off season flowering which matures during the month of January.
Production potential of pineapple:-
          (a) In Tripura,there was record size of kew pineapple reported to be 8 kg weight.
          (b) However,as nutrition management is not maintained therefore,average  production of pineapple in one ha remain within the range from 20 to 30 tonnes.
          (c) However,best managed and high density orchard can yield up to 50 to 60 tonnes per ha. 
         N:B: With the advancement in agriculture and variation of soils and agro-climatic  condition, actual package of practices for pineapple cultivation may vary place to place and country to country.

Tuesday 14 May 2013

Few steps on Papaya cultivation

   Before going to the cultivation aspects of papaya, let us see popularity and demand of papaya in local market.
   In Tripura condition, papaya is used in two forms one, ripened fruit and, two, raw fruit.
Ripened truit although highly preferred and recommended for consumption due to its inherent quality but in terms of demand it's much less compare to raw fruit.
   Raw fruit is in high demand for use in culinary purpose or vegetable purpose.
   Presently , raw papaya in sold in 10 to 12 rupees range in local market.The fact of the matter in one medium sized raw weighs up to 1(one) kilogram.
   But, fact of the  matter is there's hardly any papaya field especially meant for papaya.
Although,many farmers are in the search of alternate profitable cropping option but , this demanding crop seems to least tried by the farmers.
   Another surprising fact,papaya is in fact one of tree which finds it's place in almost all rural household but again, it's in the backyard.Taking this much long time to turrs this backyard to frontyard crop is one of the strangest things to look for .
   Growing or cultivation of papaya is not difficult,it;s more or less same like other fruit crops.
   Let us see the cultivation aspects of papaya:-

Soil conditions grows in various types of soil.
        2.soil should be well drained.
        3.Light soils are good for papaya.

Propagation of papaya:-
        1.Papapaya is propogated from seed.
        2.Sowing depends upon the choice of fruiting season.
        3.Seed are usually  sown in February to April month.
        4.Seeds are sown in nursery bed.
        5.Papaya deedlings are raised in poly bag.
        6.Seeds are sown in 1.5 cm deep tin the raised  nursery bed.
        7. Distance between row to row and seed to seed is 10 cm.
        8.Germination time is 3-4 week from sowing.
        9.Seed requirement is 400 to 500 grams seed/ha.
        10.Seedling are protected from rain and sun by erecting thatch.

Transplanting of seedlings to mainfield:-
        1.Seedlings are transplanted when they are two months old with four to five leaves.
        2.June is preferred  month for transplanting to main field.
        3.Pit is not essential but if pit is maintained with 20 kg to FXM,1 Kg of Neem cake and 1 Kg of bonemeal would be helpful.
        4.Seedlings are transplanted with a ball  of earth.
        5.Care should be taken that stem is not covered while transplanting.
        6.In case pit system of transplanting,3 seedlings are planted at 15 cm apart.

Spacing to be maintained:-
         1.Normal spacing is 1.8 x 1.8m
         2.In case of high density planting for different regions and different type of hybrid like dwarf, following spacings are maintained.
         (a) 1.33 x 1.33m
         (b) 1.40 x 1.40m
         (c) 1.40 x 1.60m
         (d) 1.60 x 1.60m and
         (e) 1.20 x 1.20m

Papaya Field management
        1. Weeding of field during initial stage
        2. Frequest and light inter cultural operation in the field
        3. Timely manuring & irrigation
        4. Maintenance of good soil moisture
        5. Controlled irrigation to avoid dampening of soil so is pathogenic growth harmful to papaya
        6. Irrigation at every 10 days interval in winter and every week in summer
        7. Application of N,P and K from 200 to 250 grams per seedling/plant/year
        8. Super phosphate and potash improves yield as well as fruit quality
        9. Enhanced rate of N, P & K to the range of 240 gram N, 500 gram P and 500 grams K Per plant/year is also applied in some improved papaya variety.
      10. Trenches are cut between the rows of papaya plants during rainy season for draining out of excess water

Fruiting of Papaya Plants:-
        1. Papaya plants starts flowering from five to ten months depending upon the region
        2. After onset of flowering, male papaya plants are identified and uprooted from field keeping only 10-15% of male papaya plants in the field
        3. Once fruiting starts, controlled thining of fruits are done wesen fruits are 2 cm long.
           Thining should be done frequently, objective is, fruits do not touch one another when matures and also ensuring proper growth of fruits.

           These are few basic steps in Papaya Cultivation however, actual package of practices of Papaya Cultivation will vary depending upon the soil and agro-climatic condition.

Monday 13 May 2013

Mango Varieties of India

      There are thousands of mango varieties in India, of this following are few which are quite popular in terms of quality and commerciality.

     3.Bombay green
     4.Samar behisht chausa
     5.Gulab Khas
     6.Fajri Zafrani
     8.Krishan  Bhog
     14.Krishna Bhog
     17.Bharat Bhog
     21.Bombai Bhutto
     26.Cowasji patel
     41.Pusa Surya
     44.Pusa Arunima
     48.Arka Aruna
     49.Arka Puneet
     50.Arka Neelikiran
     51.Arka Anmol
     52.Au Rumani
     59.Sunder Langra
     63.Konkan Ruchi
     66.Safdar Pasand
     67.Lakhan Bhog

        These are the few mango varieties including selection and hybrid.