Friday, 7 June 2013

Few steps on coconut cultivation


Propagation:
a.Coconut is propagated through nuts.
i) Selection of seed nuts is utmost importance
ii) Mother palms of seed nut should have the record of consistently high yields, heavy bearers and free from incidence of disease and pests
iii) Seed nuts are planted in the nursery bed during May-June in trenches of 25-30 cm deep at a spacing of 30 x 30 cm
iv) Seed nuts are covered with soil so that top portion of the husk alone is visible
v) Most preferred seed nut planting is vertical
vi) Coconut seedling can also raised in poly bag of 60 x 40 cm with 500 gauge thickness
vii) One year old, vigorous seedlings with 6-8 leaves with short and broad leaf stalks, snowing signs of early splitting and with 10-12 cm girth at collar region are selected for planting.
Soils requirement
a.It can be grown in different types of soil
i) Lateritic
ii) Coastal sandy
iii) Alluvial
b. PH ranging from 5.0 to 8.0
c. Good drainage system
d. Good water holding capacity
e. Presence of water table within 3m
f. Absence of rock or any hard substratum within 1m surface
Climatic requirement
a. It’s a humid tropical crop
b. Best within 23 degrees equator
c. Altitude of 1000m
d. Temperature of 27 oC with diurnal variation of 5-7 oC, 2000 hours of sunshine / year
e. Well distributed rainfall of 100-300 cm
Planting:-
a. Land preparation depends on
i) Topography of land
ii) Soil type
iii) Environment & ground water level
b. One slop and undulating area
i) Prepare land by contour terracing or bunding
c. In low lying areas
i) Forms mounds to a height of 1m above water level
d. In reclaimed area
i) Planting is done on field bundhs
e. Pit size depends on
i) Soil type
ii) Water table
f. Pit size in loamy soil with low water table
i) 1m x 1m x 1m
g. In lateritic soil with underlying rocks, pit size
i) 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.2m
h. Sandy soil pit size is
i) 75cm x 75cm x 75cm
i. Pit is filled with top soil to a height of 60cm below the ground level
j. In lateritic soil, application of common salt 2kg/pit 6months prior to planting improves the soil condition
k. Seedlings are planted in small hole taken at the centre of the pit
l. Planting time: May however, in low lying areas, September
m. Care should be taken that husk of the seed nut is visible from outside
n. Propping should be given after planting
Spacing to be maintained
   Spacing of coconut depends on following conditions:-
a. Whether crop is monoculture
b. Whether it’s grown in association with other
c. Depth, soil fertility and soil moisture level
d. In poor and rain fed soil closer spacing is followed
   Based on the above criteria’s, following system of planting and spacing is considered:-
i) Triangular system : 7.6m spacing
ii) Square system : 7.6 to 9m spacing
iii) Single hedge system : 5m between rows & 9m between rows
iv) Double hedge system : 5m x 5m in rows & 9m between pairs of rows
e. Single hedge system is most suited for raising intercrops.
Nutrient Management
Manures requirement:-
a) In sandy and coastal soil, apply 10kg organic manure per pit in the first 3(three) years
b) Apply 15 to 25kg organic manure per palm during June-July
Fertilizer application
a. In the irrigated condition 1kg N, 0.50kg P and 2kg K per palm/year
b. In rain fed condition, 0.05N, 0.32 Kg P and 1.20kg K per palm per year
c.In rain fed condition, fertilizers are applied in two split dosage, first split with 1/3 of fertilizer applied in April-June. Second split with 2/3 of fertilizers in the month of September-October
d. In irrigated condition, fertilizers are applied in 3 to 4 split dosage.
e. Fertilizers and manure should be applied in circular basin of 10cm deep at a radius of 2m from the base of palm.
f. Basin is opened after onset of south-west monsoon and after close of north-east monsoon
Water Management
a. Adequate supply of water is essential for unhindered growth of coconut
b. Soil moisture is essential for absorption of nutrients by roots
c. Moisture stress lead to
i) Stunted growth
ii) Drooping of leaves
iii) Immature nut fall
iv) Decrease yield
d. So is requirement for irrigation to get the :
i) Increase yield
ii) Size of nuts
iii) Copra content
e.The following irrigation methods are followed
i) Flood irrigation
ii) Drip irrigation and
iii) Basin irrigation
f. Basin irrigation requires 600 to 1600 litres of water at 3-9 intervals based on soil type
g. Flood irrigation causes huge water loss and nutrient leaching
h. Drip irrigation, water supplied at 4 dripping points at 1m distance from palm at 30cm below soil surface @ 2litre water discharge / hour.
Flowering & Fruiting
a. Flowering commences at 6-12 year of age
b. Nut harvesting starts from 6-7 years after planting
c. Dwarf and hybrid varieties flowers in 4-5 years
d. Coconut palm takes further 5-8 years from first commencing of flowering for stable yield
e. Fruit matures in about 12 months
     These are the few steps in cultivation however actual package of practices may vary place to place

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