Wednesday, 19 June 2013

Few steps on Mango Cultivation


Propagation
a)Mode of Propagations:-
1)through seeds
2)through vegetative means
b)Propagation through seeds:-
1)mango store should be sown within week of extraction of store
2)pulp should be washed out from store at the time of extraction of store
3)seed should be sown in nursery bed
4)nursery should be prepared under shade
5)nursery soil should be sterilized 3-4 weeks from sowing
6)mango store should also treated with fungicide before sowing
7)seed should be sown 5cm deep with germination end pointing upward
8)nursery should be 1-1.5cm wide
9)seed should be sown at 30cm between rows and 15cm between seeds
10)Nursery soil should be loose soil type for easy lifting of seedling with a ball of earth.
11)Seeds germinate in about 3 weeks
c)Methods of grafting :-
1)Inarching or approach grafting
2)Veneer grafting
3)Store / epicotyls grafting
d)Inarching or approach grafting procedure:-
1)nursery raised seedlings are transplanted in pot or poly bag
2)One year old seedlings of lead pencil thickness are selected for approach grafting
3)Potted or poly bag seedlings are placed on a suitable platform near the scion shoot of equal thickness
4)One season old shoot of mother tree are selected as scion
5)25cm above the ground level of the root stock is chosen for graft union
6)5-8cm long slice of bark and wood is removed from root stock
7)This cut removes 1/3 thickness of stem and tapers gently towards top and bottom
8)A corresponding cut is made in scion so that two cuts perfectly fits with out leaving a chick
9)These two cuts are placed face to face and tied with poly there tape
10)Grafting can be done in monsoon January –February –March but there should not be rain on grafting days.
11)Root stock in the pot or poly bag should be watered regularly
12)Stock and scion unite in about 6 weeks
13)Once stock & scion unites, scion shoot below the union is cut
14)After anther two weeks time, shoot of the root stock is cut above the union of stock & scion
15)Now the grafted seedling has roots of seedling stock and top of the mother tree to be propagated
16)Now the grafted seedling is hardened in partial shade for another two months before planting in main field.
17)The whole process starting from seed sowing to grafting and main filed planting may take 1.5-2.0 years
e)Veneer grafting:-      
1)This method differs from inarching or approach grafting
2)In this case, scion is completely detected from mother tree at the time of grafting
3)Scion shoot consists of a healthy 15 to 20cm terminal shoot of previous season’s growth
4)Scion chooser for grafting should be ready 10 days before grafting by cutting leaf blades above petiole.
5)At the time of grafting, bud of the scion should be ready to sprout
6)Veneer grafting can be done from spring to early monsoon.
7)All other grafting process remain scone as approach grafting
f)Store/ epicotyls grafting:-
1)It’s simple quick easy and cheap
2)Two weeks old seedlings are considered for root stock
3)Vigorous and tender stem with coppery leaves are chosen
4)Seeding are uprooted from bed keeping store and roots intact
5)Rooted stock is beheaded retaining 6-8cm long stem
6)Scion shoot should be 4-6 months old healthy with dormant plump terminal bud
7)Length of scion should 10-15cm in length
8)Leaves of scion should be defoliated retaining only petiole
9)Now the longitudinal transverse cut running 4-6cm centrally down the beheaded root stock
10)A wedge shape cut, slanting from both side is made on lower side of scion shoot.
11)Scion is inserted into the saddle like cut on the root stock and pressed properly so that cambium tissue of the root and scion shoot overleaf each other.
12)Union is there tied with 150 gauge polythene    
13)Now the grafted seedling is planted in 250 gauge poly there bag of 15cm x 20cm size which is perforated
Climatic requirement for mango  
a)mango is tropical as well as semi tropical plant
b)It grows up to an altitude of 1200m but fruiting is poor above 600m
c)Two most considerations are a frost tree, dry period at the time of flowering and sufficient heat at the time of ripening of fruit
d)Temperature below 34F to 36F are damaging to mango
e)Ideal temperature is 75F to 80F but can grow up to 40F to110F
f)Frost at flowering is injurious
g)Rain and cloudy weather at flowering damage the flowers
h)It can grow successfully with an annual rainfall of 75 to 190cm
Soils requirement 
a)mango being a plant of tap root system therefore nature of sub-soil is important
b)water table should be 2m to 2.5m
c)sand, clay, very heavy black soil with hard substratum not suitable
d)deep alluvial soil of Indo-Gangetic  plains is ideally suited for mango
e)However following soils are also equally suited:-
1)well drained late rite soil
2)Red soil
3)Medium black soil of  peninsular
4)Deep red loam with a substratum of loose gravel
5)Even rocky, light loamy  soils at foot hills of Himalaya is suited
f)A well drained, deep loamy soil is conducive for mango
g)Alkaline soil is injurious to  young plant
h)Desirable PH is between 5.5 to 7.5
Planting Methods   
a)planting depends on rainfall and irrigation facility based on that planting time is as fixed:-
1)February - March, when irrigation is available.
2)End of monsoon, in heavy rain fall areas
b)pit at 1m x 1m x 1m size should be dug well before the planting
c)sometimes brushwood are burnt in pits before filling of pits this improves the surrounding soil and add potassium in the form of ashes
d)Before filling of pits 20 to 30 kg of well decomposed FYM should be added with 800g bone meal and 1kg wood ashes.
e)Spacing it varies according to orchard type variety and soil fertility condition so is several spacing as following:
I)10-12m
II)16-18m
III)10-15m
IV)2.5x2.5m
V)7.5x5.0m
VI)3.0x2.5m
f)Planting is done in cool hours immediate after planting seedlings are watered.
Fertilizers Management:-  
a)For one year old plant, 300g urea, 300g single super phosphate and 100g muriate of  potash
b)Fertilizer dose is increased with the age in same multiple till the 10th year of planting
c)Ten year plant will receive 3kg urea, 3kg single super phosphate and 1kg muriate of potash
d)FYM for 10 year old plant is 50 kg
e)Time of fertilizer application is related to :-
I)Production of vegetative flush
II)Fruit bud differentiation
f)For bearing tree, it is advisable to apply full dose quantity of nitrogen/urea along with half quantity of phosphorus and potash just after harvesting of fruit
g)FYM is also appropriate to apply at this time
h)Remaining quantities of single super phosphate and muriate of potash is applied during October with last irrigation.
N:B: These are the few steps on cultivation however, actual package of practices for cultivation of mango may vary place to place based on the soil and climatic condi

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